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haproxy

haproxy

haproxy概述

haproxy是一款高性能的负载均衡软件。因为其专注于负载均衡这一些事情,因此与nginx比起来在负载均衡这件事情上做更好,更专业。

haproxy的特点

  • 支持tcp / http 两种协议层的负载均衡,使得其负载均衡功能非常丰富。
  • 支持8种左右的负载均衡算法,尤其是在http模式时,有许多非常实在的负载均衡算法,适用各种需求。
  • 性能非常优秀,基于单进程处理模式(和Nginx类似)让其性能卓越。
  • 拥有一个功能出色的监控页面,实时了解系统的当前状况。
  • 功能强大的ACL支持,给用户极大的方便。

haproxy算法:
1.roundrobin
基于权重进行轮询,在服务器的处理时间保持均匀分布时,这是最平衡,最公平的算法.此算法是动态的,这表示其权重可以在运行时进行调整.
2.static-rr
基于权重进行轮询,与roundrobin类似,但是为静态方法,在运行时调整其服务器权重不会生效.不过,其在后端服务器连接数上没有限制
3.leastconn
新的连接请求被派发至具有最少连接数目的后端服务器

haproxy安装

环境说明:

主机名ip职责
haproxy192.168.200.165Haprosy
RS1192.168.200.159web界面
RS2192.168.200.161web界面

haproxy软件包下载官网: haproxy.org

[root@haproxy ~]# yum -y install make gcc pcre-devel bzip2-devel openssl-devel systemd-devel

#创建haproxy用户
[root@haproxy ~]# useradd -r -M -s /sbin/nologin haproxy

[root@haproxy src]# tar xf haproxy-2.4.0.tar.gz 
[root@haproxy src]# ls
debug  haproxy-2.4.0  haproxy-2.4.0.tar.gz  kernels
[root@haproxy src]# cd haproxy-2.4.0
[root@haproxy haproxy-2.4.0]# make clean
[root@haproxy haproxy-2.4.0]# make -j $(nproc) TARGET=linux-glibc USE_OPENSSL=1 USE_PCRE=1 USE_SYSTEMD=1
[root@haproxy haproxy-2.4.0]# make install prefix=/usr/local/haproxy

// 另外两个主机上安装httpd
[root@RS1 ~]# yum -y install httpd
[root@RS1 ~]# systemctl enable --now httpd
[root@RS1 ~]# echo "work1" > /var/www/html/index.html
[root@RS1 ~]# ss -anlt
State    Recv-Q   Send-Q     Local Address:Port     Peer Address:Port   
LISTEN   0        128              0.0.0.0:22            0.0.0.0:*      
LISTEN   0        128                    *:80                  *:*      
LISTEN   0        128                 [::]:22               [::]:* 

[root@RS2 ~]# yum -y install httpd
[root@RS2 ~]# systemctl enable --now httpd
[root@RS1 ~]# echo "work2" > /var/www/html/index.html
[root@RS2 ~]# ss -anlt
State    Recv-Q   Send-Q     Local Address:Port     Peer Address:Port   
LISTEN   0        128              0.0.0.0:22            0.0.0.0:*      
LISTEN   0        128                    *:80                  *:*      
LISTEN   0        128                 [::]:22               [::]:* 
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配置内核参数

[root@haproxy ~]# echo 'net.ipv4.ip_nonlocal_bind = 1' >>  /etc/sysctl.conf
[root@haproxy ~]# echo 'net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1' >> /etc/sysctl.conf
[root@haproxy ~]# sysctl  -p 
net.ipv4.ip_nonlocal_bind = 1
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
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提供配置文件

[root@haproxy ~]# mkdir /etc/haproxy
[root@haproxy ~]# cat /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg 
#--------------全局配置----------------
global
    log 127.0.0.1 local0  info
    #log loghost local0 info
    maxconn 20480
#chroot /usr/local/haproxy
    pidfile /var/run/haproxy.pid
    #maxconn 4000
    user haproxy
    group haproxy
    daemon
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
#common defaults that all the 'listen' and 'backend' sections will
#use if not designated in their block
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
defaults
    mode http
    log global
    option dontlognull
    option httpclose
    option httplog
    #option forwardfor
    option redispatch
    balance roundrobin
    timeout connect 10s
    timeout client 10s
    timeout server 10s
    timeout check 10s
    maxconn 60000
    retries 3
#--------------统计页面配置------------------
listen admin_stats
    bind 0.0.0.0:8189
    stats enable
    mode http
    log global
    stats uri /haproxy_stats
    stats realm Haproxy Statistics
    stats auth admin:admin
    #stats hide-version
    stats admin if TRUE
    stats refresh 30s
#---------------web设置-----------------------
listen webcluster
    bind 0.0.0.0:80
    mode http
    #option httpchk GET /index.html
    log global
    maxconn 3000
    balance roundrobin
    cookie SESSION_COOKIE insert indirect nocache
    server web01 192.168.200.159:80 check inter 2000 fall 5
    server web02 192.168.200.161:80 check inter 2000 fall 5


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haproxy.service文件编写

[root@haproxy ~]# cat /usr/lib/systemd/system/haproxy.service 
[Unit]
Description=HAProxy Load Balancer
After=syslog.target network.target

[Service]
ExecStartPre=/usr/local/sbin/haproxy -f /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg   -c -q
ExecStart=/usr/local/sbin/haproxy -Ws -f /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg  -p /var/run/haproxy.pid
ExecReload=/bin/kill -USR2 

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

[root@haproxy ~]# systemctl enable --now haproxy
Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/haproxy.service → /usr/lib/systemd/system/haproxy.service.
[root@localhost ~]# ss -anlt
State    Recv-Q   Send-Q     Local Address:Port     Peer Address:Port   
LISTEN   0        128              0.0.0.0:8189          0.0.0.0:*      
LISTEN   0        128              0.0.0.0:80            0.0.0.0:*      
LISTEN   0        128              0.0.0.0:22            0.0.0.0:*      
LISTEN   0        128                 [::]:22               [::]:*     

// 启动日志
[root@haproxy ~]# vim /etc/rsyslog.conf
local0.*                        /var/log/haproxy.log
[root@haproxy ~]# systemctl restart rsyslog

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haproxy配置负载均衡(https)

证书生成

[root@RS1 ~]# yum -y install openssl
[root@RS1 ~]# mkdir ~/keys
[root@RS1 ~]# cd keys
[root@RS1 keys]# openssl genrsa -out passport.com.key 2048
Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus (2 primes)
.............................+++++
....................+++++
e is 65537 (0x010001)
[root@RS1 keys]# openssl req -new -key passport.com.key -out passport.com.csr
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [XX]:CN
State or Province Name (full name) []:HuBei
Locality Name (eg, city) [Default City]:WuHan
Organization Name (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]:test
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:passport
Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:web01.com
Email Address []:passport@qq.com

Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:1
string is too short, it needs to be at least 4 bytes long
A challenge password []:1@2.com
An optional company name []:
[root@RS1 keys]# openssl x509 -req -days 3650 -in passport.com.csr -signkey passport.com.key -out passport.com.crt
Signature ok
subject=C = CN, ST = HuBei, L = WuHan, O = test, OU = passport, CN = web01.com, emailAddress = passport@qq.com
Getting Private key
[root@RS1 keys]# ls
passport.com.crt  passport.com.csr  passport.com.key
[root@RS1 keys]# scp passport.com.crt passport.com.key 192.168.200.161:/root/
The authenticity of host '192.168.200.161 (192.168.200.161)' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:0Ynm9bqYhmtwF8Jdpj7HYZ4c9A9/EGj6sxSYC91sKFk.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no/[fingerprint])? yes
Warning: Permanently added '192.168.200.161' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
root@192.168.200.161's password: 
passport.com.crt                      100%%%% 1294     1.2MB/s   00:00    
passport.com.key                      100%%%% 1679   584.2KB/s   00:00 
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RS上配置https

[root@RS2 ~]# yum -y install mod_ssl
[root@RS2 ~]# mkdir  /etc/httpd/ssl
[root@RS2 ~]# mv passport.com.* /etc/httpd/ssl/
[root@RS2 ~]# cd /etc/httpd/ssl/
[root@RS2 ssl]# ls
passport.com.crt  passport.com.key
[root@RS2 ssl]# cd ..
[root@RS2 httpd]# ls
conf  conf.d  conf.modules.d  logs  modules  run  ssl  state
[root@RS2 httpd]# cd conf.d/
[root@RS2 conf.d]# ls
autoindex.conf  README  ssl.conf  userdir.conf  welcome.conf
[root@RS2 conf.d]# vim ssl.conf  
#找到此两行,取消注释
DocumentRoot "/var/www/html"
ServerName www.example.com:443

#修改此两行路径
SSLCertificateFile /etc/httpd/ssl/passport.com.crt
SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/httpd/ssl/passport.com.key
[root@RS2 ~]# systemctl restart httpd
[root@RS2 ~]# ss -anlt
State    Recv-Q   Send-Q     Local Address:Port     Peer Address:Port   
LISTEN   0        128              0.0.0.0:22            0.0.0.0:*      
LISTEN   0        128                    *:80                  *:*      
LISTEN   0        128                 [::]:22               [::]:*      
LISTEN   0        128                    *:443                 *:* 

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修改配置文件

[root@haproxy ~]# vim /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg 
#--------------全局配置----------------
global
    log 127.0.0.1 local0  info
    #log loghost local0 info
    maxconn 20480
#chroot /usr/local/haproxy
    pidfile /var/run/haproxy.pid
    #maxconn 4000

    user haproxy
    group haproxy
    daemon
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
#common defaults that all the 'listen' and 'backend' sections will
#use if not designated in their block
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
defaults
    mode tcp             //模式改为tcp
    log global
    option dontlognull
    option httpclose
    option httplog
    #option forwardfor
    option redispatch
    balance roundrobin
    timeout connect 10s
    timeout client 10s
    timeout server 10s
    timeout check 10s
    maxconn 60000
    retries 3    
#--------------统计页面配置------------------
listen admin_stats
    bind 0.0.0.0:8189
    stats enable
    mode http
    log global
    stats uri /haproxy_stats
    stats realm Haproxy Statistics
    stats auth admin:admin
    #stats hide-version
    stats admin if TRUE
    stats refresh 30s
#---------------web设置-----------------------
listen webcluster
    bind 0.0.0.0:443       //端口改为443
    mode tcp               //模式改为tcp
    #option httpchk GET /index.html
    log global
    maxconn 3000
    balance roundrobin
    cookie SESSION_COOKIE insert indirect nocache
    server web01 192.168.200.159:443 check inter 2000 fall 5      //端口改为443
    server web02 192.168.200.161:443 check inter 2000 fall 5     //端口改为443

[root@haproxy haproxy]# systemctl restart haproxy.service
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